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History of the ASME Code
On March 20, 1905, a disastrous boiler explosion occurred in a shoe factory
in Brockton, Massachusetts, killing 58 persons, injuring 117 others,
and causing a quarter of a million dollars in property damage. For years
prior to 1905, boiler explosions had been regarded as either an inevitable
evil or “an act of God” (see Figs. 1.1 and 1.2). But this catastrophic accident
had the effect of making the people of Massachusetts see the necessity
and desirability of legislating rules and regulations for the
construction of steam boilers in order to secure their maximum safety.
After much debate and discussion, the state enacted the first legal code
of rules for the construction of steam boilers in 1907. In 1908, the state
of Ohio passed similar legislation, the Ohio Board of Boiler Rules adopting,
with a few changes, the rules of the Massachusetts Board.
Therefore, other states and cities in which explosions had taken
place began to realize that accidents could be prevented by the proper
design, construction, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels and
began to formulate rules and regulations for this purpose. As regulations
differed from state to state and often conflicted with one another,
manufacturers began to find it difficult to construct vessels for use in
one state that would be accepted in another. Because of this lack of uniformity,
both manufacturers and users made an appeal in 1911 to the
Council of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to correct the
situation. The Council answered the appeal by appointing a committee
“to formulate standard specifications for the construction of steam boilers
and other pressure vessels and for their care in service.”
Vessels, tanks, and pipelines that carry, store, or receive fluids are called
pressure vessels. A pressure vessel is defined as a container with a pressure
differential between inside and outside. The inside pressure is usually
higher than the outside, except for some isolated situations. The fluid inside
the vessel may undergo a change in state as in the case of steam boilers, or
may combine with other reagents as in the case of a chemical reactor.
Pressure vessels often have a combination of high pressures together with
high temperatures, and in some cases flammable fluids or highly radioactive
materials. Because of such hazards it is imperative that the design be
such that no leakage can occur. In addition these vessels have to be
designed carefully to cope with the operating temperature and pressure. It
should be borne in mind that the rupture of a pressure vessel has a potential
to cause extensive physical injury and property damage. Plant safety and
integrity are of fundamental concern in pressure vessel design and these of
course depend on the adequacy of design codes.
جزوه اي كه هم اكنون در اختيار شما مهندسين عزيز مي باشد، گزيده اي از مباحث اصلي كد
ASME Sec.VIII, Div.I و آموزش نرم افزار PV Elite می باشد.
Welcome to Advanced Pressure Vessel. This manual is intended to complement the extensive help system. The chapters in this manual are presented in an order intended to help new users understand the program as quickly as possible